Steps in validating a survey instrument carolyn hax dating advice
Furthermore, the method has also been found useful for the development of research proposals by a team. Define the sampling procedure and calculate the sample size;6. The target group of the guidelines is primarily students, but the guidelines will also be useful to senior researchers who guide and coach students or who plan to carry out their own research projects in the field of nutrition.This is especially important in interdisciplinary sciences such as nutrition, when individuals with different experiences and expertise have to be brought together. A research proposal has two main objectives:» to help the researcher to define the contents and to plan and execute his/her research project;» to inform potential collaborators and supporters about the topic and the expected quality of the research.» justify the chosen research project;» describe the current state of knowledge on the research topic, considering all important relevant literature;» formulate the hypothesis or research question;» define the research strategy and methodology to be used to test the hypothesis or research question;» discuss ethical considerations about the research methodology;» define realistic, feasible, operational planning, based on the research methodology and general conditions;» inform potential collaborating institutions and persons about the research project and enable them to identify the kind of support they can give;» serve as an important tool for monitoring the research.
The curriculum vitae of the principal researcher should be included in the appendix of the research proposal.
Table of contents The table of contents outlines the structure of the research proposal. The headings and subheadings are structured and numbered, and the appropriate page numbers appear at the right-hand margin.
The causal model is based on conclusions drawn from the literature. The causal model helps to identify all relevant variables that contribute to a hypothesis and define the expected cause-effect relationships of the variables.
In particular, a causal model helps to:» select relevant literature for reading;» identify all necessary variables that have to be controlled by the study, including confounding factors;» identify hypothetical relationships between variables.
The selection and discussion of the literature strongly indicates the intellectual capacity of the researcher and the time spent in preparing the research proposal.
This requires careful review and analysis of the literature.
Modern computerized systems allow for the collection of an enormous number of literature citations.
It maybe difficult for a less experienced researcher to judge the relevance of a citation.
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